In 1818 Solomon Richards, an eminent Dublin Surgeon, bought Ardamine estate from Sir Walter Roberts of Courtlands Devon. What was described as a ‘smallish white square house which was used by the family as a seaside holiday home’ existed on the site and would later become Ardamine house. In the 1820s and 1830s Solomon Richard’s son, John Gobbard Richards, added extensively onto the building. In 1835, Lewis in his topographical dictionary of Ireland, referred to how ‘the grounds have been recently embellished with thriving plantations and other improvements’.
After John’s death the estate passed onto his son, Solomon Augustus and then to his son Bernard John, who died young and unmarried in 1879. As Bernard had no family it subsequently became the property of his brother, Major Arthur William Mordaunt Richards, who was high sheriff, a justice of the peace, and deputy lieutenant for county Wexford.
On the 8th of July 1921 Ardamine House, the residence of Major Richards, was burned to the ground. The major was not resident in the house at the time of the incident, instead residing in England for some years before. In preparation for the operation the surrounding roads were blocked with felled trees and outposts set up to impede the arrival of crown forces. Only the gardener and his wife were in the building on the night when about 80 raiders arrived. Once they gained admission inside the mansion some of them asked to be led to the garden house where they took the watering cans and filled them with petrol, which they then sprinkled around the house. After three hours the beautiful building was burned to the ground.
The raiders were complimented for the courtesy, apologising as they left the burning building, but said they had to carry out their instructions. It was estimated to cost at least £50,000 to rebuild the house which boasted its own electric plant. A compensation claim of £35,000 was later lodged.
James O Toole, in his withness statement to the bureau of military history, recalled years later that Major Richards was a signatory of the death warrants of the 1916 rising leaders. It had been their intention to also destroy Courtown house of the same night but they received countermanding orders at the last minute. The North Wexford brigade activity files state the operation was undertaken by the Courtown and Riverchapel company as a reprisal for the destruction of several houses by British forces following the ambush at Inch outside Gorey in May that year in which an RIC constable was shot dead.
After the destruction of Ardamine house Major Richards considered rebuilding before later abandoning the idea and returning to live in England. The estate was sold out to the land commission in 1922. The only remnants of the estate today are some woods, stables, a complex of workers houses, the walls of the walled garden and a sundial which still stands on which is inscribed ‘I give all men warning how the shadows fly. All men are shadows and a shadow am I. A hotel currently occupies the site.
Ardnamine House and Ballyrankin (located near Bunclody) were the first ‘Big Houses’ to be destroyed in the county with many others falling victim to the Civil War that was yet to come.
Bureau of military history witness statement, Jame O Toole #1084
Enniscorthy Guardian, 16th July 1921, p5
North Wexford Brigade Activity Files.
Houses of Wexford, 2016 by David Rowe & Eithne Scallan, Ballinakella Press #15.
Throughout the War of Independence in Ireland numerous country mansions were destroyed. These were known locally as ‘the big house’, home to the aristocracy and landed gentry. Although sometimes these buildings evoke stories of famine and evictions, they form an important part of our heritage, each having a story to tell, which is worth preserving. County Wexford saw the destruction of some of it’s big houses during the period with the first being ‘Ballyrankin House’ situated beside the river Slaney, three miles from the market town of Bunclody.
Ballyrankin house consisted of a ‘fine classical, late-Georgian, two storey over basement house with three wide bays, and a lower, northern, two bay extension backing onto an enclosed yard’. The house was constructed around 1840, then associated with the Devereux family. In 1910 it came into the possession of Walter Clarmount Skrine of Warleigh Manor, Somerset, husband of the poet Agnes Skrine, aka Marie O’ Neill. Their daughter was the famous novelist Molly Keane, whom for a period used the name MJ. Farrel. The house was situated a distance back from the Ferns to Clohamon road with two entrances, each having a gate lodge. The grounds contained many mature trees as well as a walled garden, stables and other farm outhouses.
Destruction of the house
The newspapers from the time report that on Thursday night the 8th of July 1921 a group of 20 armed and masked men entered the house and ordered it’s occupiers into a room, where they were kept under guard. Two maids who were also present in the house, were ordered to leave. Then the building and its furniture was sprinkled with petrol and set alight. Sally Phipps (Molly Keane’s daughter) in writing a biography of her mother (Molly Keane: A life) gives an account of that night
‘Molly was in her last days at the French School when Ballyrankin was burned. The insurgents came on a summer night. Her mother told her that the air smelled of clover and smoke. At first Nesta thought they had come to assassinate her English husband and she pleaded for his life. They were ordered into the study while furniture was piled up in the hall and petrol poured over it. Then they were taken outside by armed men. Walter defended his property so vigorously that one of the raiders said to him, ‘please steady yourself, Captain, or we will have to shoot you’. He replied, ‘I would rather be shot in Ireland than live in England’, an answer that was much quoted afterwards. A dry east wind fanned the flames and the house burned fast. Armchairs were politely brought for them to absorb the shock sitting down, but they preferred to lean against the newly made haycocks as they watched their home blaze. The bravado, the courage, the politeness made no difference. A beautiful eighteenth century house went up in flames.’
The Kilmyshall, Ballycarney and part of the Marshalstown IRA companies are reported to have been in attendance that night. Some of those involved may have been familiar with Ballyrankin previously as it was raided by the Kilmyshall company in 1919 searching for arms. After the burning of the house that night the Skrines walked the three miles into Bunclody town.
Newspaper reports tell us that sometime later Walter Skreen applied to the local district council for compensation for the loss of the house, furniture, wearing apparel, jewelry and other contents, together with the contents of the adjoining out offices, totaling £40,000. The Freemas Journal reports in October of 1921 that he was awarded the lesser sum of £14,250 for the burning of the house and £6000 for contents. No attempt was made to reconstruct Ballyrankin House and Walter and his wife purchased a neighboring residence, naming it ‘New Ballyrankin’.
The ruins of Ballyrankin house still stand to this day. Much of the plaster has fallen from the walls revealing the brick beneath. Fine ornamental work can be seen around the windows and cut stone at the front front entrance.
One feature which was noticed upon visiting the house inside was the charred black remains of the timbers protruding from the walls, physical reminders of the destructive fire. Although the house is a ruin what remains is significant enough to give the impression of a what once was a fine mansion or a ‘big house’.
Reason for its destruction
The activity reports of the North Wexford Brigade IRA state that the burning of Ballyrankin house was done ‘as a reprisal for the burning of Doyle’s of Cromogue, which occurred shortly after the shooting of the spies Skelton Brothers’. The burning of Doyle’s is reported in the Irish Times on the 19th of February 1921. It tells how on Wednesday night, the 16th of February 1921, a group of armed and masked raiders set alight the thatched home of Margaret Doyle, who lived there with her niece, who ran an Irish language school from an adjoining building. Both women and three small children were ordered out of the house and it together with the school and their contents went up in flames. Cocks of Hay were also set alight. The raiders then proceeded to the neighboring townland of Cloneybyrne, targeting the residence of a Mrs Murphy. There they broke windows and dragged furniture and other contents of the house outside before setting them alight. A haggard full with hay and straw was also torched.
Although not stated in the papers it is possible the burning of both Doyles and Murphys may have been undertaken by the ‘Black and Tans’ or people connected to the authorities. Thomas Meagher, who was a member of the North Wexford Flying Column, tells how after an attempted ambush on an enemy supply lorry himself and other members of the flying column, ‘retired to Cromogue and remained there for a few days’. This suggests there was a possible safe house (or houses) in the townland, perhaps Doyles or Murphys. Any such safe house or home lending support to the IRA would have been a target for the British authorities while the burning of an Irish Language school was probably an added bonus also.
Houses of Wexford, 2016 by David Rowe & Eithne Scallan, Ballinakella Press
North Wexford Brigade Activity Reports avaliable @ militaryarchives.ie
Molly Keane: A Life, 2016 by Sally Phipps, Virago
The Newross Standard Newspaper, Page 8, 15.08.1921
Nationalist and Leinster Times 1883-current, 16.07.1921, page 5
Freemans Journal 09/07/1921, page 5
The Irish Times 19/02/1921
Thomas Francis Meagher, Bureau of Military History witness statement #1156
Please note that the ruins of Ballyrankin House are situated on private property and permission is required to visit.
Acknowledgement. Thank you to the landowner for providing me with permission to visit and photograph the ruins